2. Stephen Jay Gould points out, “... The fact of correlation implies nothing about cause. It is not even true that intense correlations are more likely to represent cause than weak ones.... I spoke of a cause for arm and leg lengths not because their correlation was high, but because I know something about the biology of the situation. The inference of cause must come from somewhere else, not from the simple fact of correlation — though an unexpected correlation may lead us to search for causes so long as we remember that we may not find them. The vast majority of correlations in our world are, without doubt, noncausal. ... The invalid assumption that correlation implies cause is probably among the two or three most serious and common errors of human reasoning.” The Mismeasure of Man (W.W. Norton & Company, Inc./ New York. 1981), p.242.
Robert Brandom. “Freedom and Constraint by Norms”, from American Philosophical Quarterly, (Volume 16, Number 3, July 1979) pp.187-196.
Michel Foucault. Discipline and Punish, The Birth of the Prison (translated from the French by Alan Sheridan). Vintage Books (Random House), New York, 1975.
Stephen Jay Gould. The Mismeasure of Man. W.W.Norton & Company, New York, 1981.
Ian Hacking. “Language, Truth and Reason.” (source indeterminate)
Paul Horwich. “Three forms of Realism”, from Synthese 51 (1982) pp.181-201.
Tod May. “The Limits of the Mental and the Limits of Philosophy: From Burge to Foucault and Beyond.” (manuscript)
Wilfred Sellars. “Philosophy and the Scientific Image of Man.” (source indeterminate)